Joyner v. Whiting
At North Carolina Central University, a historically black university, student newspaper The Campus Echo published in 1971 front-page content “expressing some considerable dissatisfaction” with the increasing number of white and non-black students at the university. The newspaper also said that it would stop running “white” advertisements. University President Albert Whiting, believing that the Echo did not “either meet standard journalistic criteria nor represent fairly the full spectrum of views on the campus,” determined that student-fee funds would no longer be allocated the newspaper.
Editor-in-chief Johnnie Edward Joyner and Harvey Lee White, president of the Student Government Association, sued Whiting. The court ruled that the Constitution protects the press from from being imposed with censorship by means of “direct or indirect financial assistance.”